March on Milwaukee collection header

The March On Milwaukee Civil Rights History Project

Bibliography

Primary Sources

Ad Hoc Committee on Police Administration in Milwaukee. Records. Milwaukee SC 177. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries, Archives Department.
Fragmentary records of a group which sought to make the City of Milwaukee Police Department's administration more responsive to community needs and goals, and to decrease tensions between police and Milwaukee inner city residents.
Archdiocese of Milwaukee. Boycott of the Central City Schools and Freedom School Records. Manuscript Collection 171. Archdiocese of Milwaukee Archives.
This collection contains materials related to the school boycotts and Milwaukee Freedom Schools. Included are materials from the Freedom Schools, such as schedules and curriculum, statements, pamphlets and addresses by various civil rights and Archdiocesan leaders, as well as newspaper clippings.
Aukofer, Frank. City with a Chance. Milwaukee: Bruce Publishing, 1968.

_____. Papers. Milwaukee Mss 189. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries, Archives Department.
Papers of Aukofer, a former reporter and chief of the Washington, D.C. bureau of The Milwaukee Journal, later the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. Includes subject files containing memoranda, draft writings, clippings, reporter's notebooks, and research materials on Father James Groppi and the civil rights movement in Milwaukee.
Barbee, Lloyd, interview. I Remember Milwaukee, no. 108. VHS. Milwaukee, WI: WMVS/WMVT, 1995.

_____. Papers. Milwaukee Mss 16 and Milwaukee Micro 42. University of Wisconsin- Milwaukee Libraries, Archives Department.
Papers of a civil rights activist, lawyer, and Wisconsin state legislator. These include personal papers on his family and law practice; files on organizations in which he participated such as Freedom Through Equality, Milwaukee Legal Services, the Milwaukee United School Integration Committee, and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; and research and legal files pertaining to the desegregation suit filed against the Milwaukee School Board by the NAACP in 1965 in which Barbee was lawyer for the plaintiffs.
Barnhill, Helen. Papers. Milwaukee Mss 4. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries, Archives Department.
Papers of the executive secretary of the Milwaukee Citizens for Equal Opportunity (MCEO) and member of the allied Milwaukee United School Integration Committee (MUSIC), including flyers, memos, and other material of the MCEO as well as Freedom School curricular material.
Bleidorn, Eugene F. In My Time: A Chronicle, Aspects and Perceptions of Personal Experiences. Milwaukee, 1994.

_____. Papers. Manuscript Collection 51. Archdiocese of Milwaukee Archives.
This collection reflects the life and career of a Roman Catholic priest who, in 1970, left the ordained ministry and successfully pursued a second career as a health services administrator. Series VI contains materials from Bleidorn’s work as pastor at St. Boniface parish. It includes parish bulletins, records related to his work on the school boycotts of 1965, and records from his work on the Council of Urban Life in 1966.
_____. Papers. Milwaukee SC 92. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries, Archives Department
Photocopied correspondence, clippings, and printed matter of former priest of St. Boniface parish, concerning Freedom Schools and church involvement in them.
Citizen Urban Renewal Committee. Records. MSS 64. Local History Manuscript Collection. Milwaukee Public Library.
The records of the Citizen Urban Renewal Committee consist of correspondence, reports, studies, and meeting minutes.
City of Milwaukee. Office of the Mayor. Milwaukee Commission on Community Relations Records. Series 41. City of Milwaukee Archives. Milwaukee Public Library.
Records document Milwaukee Commission on Community Relations’ involvement with women, minorities and teens on topics including affirmative action, war on prejudice, women-owned businesses and hate/violence between 1941 and 1988.
Congress of Racial Equality. Milwaukee Chapter. Records. Milwaukee Mss 27. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries, Archives Department.
Records of the Milwaukee chapter of CORE, mainly relating to the activities of the education committee's campaign to end de facto segregation in the Milwaukee school system. Includes material on the 1964 Freedom Day protest.
Cousins, William E., Papers. Manuscript Collection 28. Archdiocese of Milwaukee Archives.
This collection consists of papers related to the eighth Archbishop of Milwaukee, who was Archbishop during the 1960s. Of note is the large Press Clippings series.
District Courts of the United States Records. Record Group 21. National Archives and Records Administration—Great Lakes Region (Chicago).
Alexander, et al v. Maier, et al (1967). Case 67-C-316. Civil Case Files; U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Wisconsin (Milwaukee). Members of the NAACP Youth Council, along with their advisor Fr. James Groppi, challenged the constitutionality of Milwaukee Mayor Henry Maier’s August 30, 1967 proclamation banning night marches. This case file includes the City’s version of the burning of the NAACP Youth Council Freedom House on the night of August 29, 1967.

Amos, et al v. Board of School Directors of the City of Milwaukee (1965). Case 65- C-173; Civil Case Files; U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Wisconsin (Milwaukee). This case covers 1965 to the mid-1980s. Many of its contents consist of statistical and survey reports that established the historical segregation and inequality of the Milwaukee public school system.

Bell, et al v. City of Milwaukee, et al (1979). Case 79-C-297; Civil Case Files; U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Wisconsin (Milwaukee). The family of Daniel Bell sued the City and a number of police officials regarding his 1958 shooting and the subsequent police cover-up. The court awarded the family $1.6 million.

Pitts vs. State of Wisconsin, et al (1969). Case 69-C-260; Civil Case Files; U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Wisconsin (Milwaukee). Civil rights activist Orville Pitts asked the Federal court to compel the State of Wisconsin to repeal the tax exempt status of the Eagles Club of Milwaukee, successfully arguing that the club’s “whites only” membership policy prevented state tax exemption.
Dougherty, Jack. More Than One Struggle Oral History Project Records. UWM Mss 217. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries, Archives Department.
Oral history interviews conducted by Jack Dougherty during the course of researching his book More Than One Struggle: The Evolution of Black School Reform in Milwaukee, as well as research files on related subjects.
Duncan Group, Inc. Through One City's Eyes Interview Transcripts. Milwaukee Mss 202. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries, Archives Department.
Transcripts of interviews conducted for the documentary Through One City's Eyes: Race Relations in America's Heartland produced by the Duncan Group in association with Milwaukee Public Television and Wisconsin Public Radio. Interviewees discuss race relations in Milwaukee during the civil rights movement.
Fleming, Karl H. Who "Riots" and Why? Black and White Perspectives in Milwaukee. Milwaukee: Milwaukee Urban League, 1968.
Freedom Day School Withdrawal Poster. UWM Mss 268. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries, Archives Department.
Poster created likely in 1964 to promote the boycott of Milwaukee Public Schools and encourage attendance at temporary, alternative schools known as Freedom Schools.
Groppi, James. Papers. Milwaukee Mss EX. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries, Archives Department.
Papers of a former Roman Catholic priest and prominent Milwaukee civil rights activist. Most of the correspondence is unsolicited responses to Father Groppi's 1967-1968 civil rights activities.
Hart, Kathleen Mary. Milwaukee Public Schools Desegregation Collection. UWM Mss 90. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries, Archives Department.
Records created or compiled by Hart concerning the desegregation of the Milwaukee Public School system. Included are files of the Committee of 100, which was an advisory group to the Board of Directors regarding alternative schools and integration.
Historic Photo Collection. Humanities Department. Milwaukee Public Library.
The Historic Photo Collection contains many photographs under the subject heading "Civil Rights Movement."
Historic Portrait Collection. Humanities Department. Milwaukee Public Library.
Includes photographs of Lloyd Barbee, Harold Breier, James Groppi, Henry Maier, and Vel Phillips.
Holmes, Elizabeth. Papers. Milwaukee Mss 118. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries, Archives Department.
Papers of a member of the Milwaukee Public School Board of Directors, consisting of speeches, school district reports, and studies including that of the Special Committee on Equality of Education Opportunity regarding segregation within Milwaukee schools.
Larkey, Jay and Hinda. Papers. UWM Mss 299. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries, Archives Department.
Newspaper clippings and photographs on Larkeys’ activities during the civil rights movement, including clippings of Hinda’s arrest when protesting school segregation, a dismantled scrapbook on a 1968 "Freedom-In" fundraising event held at the Larkey's home, and slides of the 1965 Milwaukee march to protest police action in Selma, Alabama.
Llorens, David. "Miracle in Milwaukee." Ebony 23, no. 1 (1967): 29-37.
March on Milwaukee: More Than One Struggle, Oral History Interviews. Marquette University, Raynor Memorial Libraries.
Interviews conducted by students at Marquette University, concentrating on aspects of the civil rights movement in Milwaukee during the 1960s.
Milwaukee Citizens for Equal Opportunity. Records. Milwaukee Micro 16. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries, Archives Department.
Records of a community organization formed to promote civil rights, school integration, and fair housing. Includes correspondence, minutes of meetings, newsletters, and miscellaneous materials pertaining to MCEO activities.
Milwaukee History Newspaper Clippings Files. Humanities Department. Milwaukee Public Library.
Clippings from Milwaukee area newspapers; relevant listings include many personal names as well as Civil Rights – Milwaukee; Congress on Racial Equality; Council Committee of 100; Discrimination in Housing; Housing – Milwaukee; Integration – Schools – Milwaukee; Milwaukee United for Better Housing; National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP); National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) - Youth Council.
Milwaukee Journal Stations. Records. Milwaukee Mss 203. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries, Archives Department.
Includes unedited daily news footage from the late 1960s in Milwaukee as well as scripts for editorials read on WTMJ-TV, WTMJ-AM, and WTMJ-FM in the 1960s.
Milwaukee Public Schools. Division of Curriculum and Instruction. The Negro in American Life: A Guide to Supplement the Study of United States. Milwaukee: Secondary Dept., Division of Curriculum and Instruction, Milwaukee Public Schools, 1967.
Milwaukee United School Integration Committee. Records. Milwaukee Mss 5. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries, Archives Department.
Partial records of an organization that worked to end school segregation and racial discrimination in Milwaukee through direct action and protests. Records include Freedom Day School schedules, curricula, and lessons.
Milwaukee Urban Atlas. Department of City Development, Policy Development Information System, Central Electronics Data Services, and the City of Milwaukee, 1982.
Milwaukee Urban League. Records. Milwaukee Mss EZ. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries, Archives Department.
Records and reference materials largely from the tenure of executive director Wesley L. Scott, documenting the League’s action in local civil rights, civic, service, religious, and social organizations and clubs.
Milwaukee (Wis.), Mayor, Records of the Henry W. Maier Administration. Milwaukee Series 44. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries, Archives Department.
Official records of the Maier mayoral administration, including correspondence, log sheets, memoranda, reports, and speeches. Files include those on Civil Rights, Civil Disturbances, Commission on Community Relations, and James Groppi.
NAACP Youth and College Division. March on Milwaukee: NAACP Milwaukee Youth Council Demonstrations for Fair Housing. New York: NAACP, 1968.
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Milwaukee Branch. Records. Milwaukee Mss EP. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries, Archives Department.
Records primarily reflect the revived activity of the Milwaukee branch of the NAACP during the 1950s and 1960s.
Novick, David. Papers. UWM Mss 287. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries, Archives Department.
Papers documenting Novick, a photo journalist in Milwaukee who attended many civil rights activities in the 1960s. Of note are copies of his FBI file and Milwaukee Police Department Special Assignment Squad file, which inform on numerous events and the people in attendance.
O'Reilly, Charles T., Steven I. Pflanczer, and Willard E. Downing. The People of the Inner Core-North: A Study of Milwaukee's Negro Community. New York: LePlay Research, 1965.
Pacifica Radio Archives. Black Christmas in Milwaukee. North Hollywood, CA: Pacifica Radio Archives, c.2000. Sound disc; 30 min.
Black residents of Milwaukee's inner core react to a suggestion by Dick Gregory in the fall of 1968 that they put economic pressure on the City of Milwaukee regarding an open housing law, by refusing to buy gifts and foods for Christmas that year.
Phillips, Vel, interview. I Remember Milwaukee, no. 111. VHS. Milwaukee, WI: WMVS/WMVT, 1995.

_____. I Remember Milwaukee, no. 144. VHS. Milwaukee, WI: WMVS/WMVT, 1995.
Priest Senate of the Archdiocese of Milwaukee. Records. Manuscript Collection 12. Archdiocese of Milwaukee Archives.
The Priest Senate was founded on March 6, 1967 to serve as a means of representing the presbytery in the modern world and to assist its bishop in the effective governing of the diocese. It was actively involved in religious and social/political issues of the day. This collection includes meeting minutes of the Senate as well as other committees that dealt with civil rights related issues.
"Races: The Shame of Milwaukee." TIME 67, no. 14 (1956): 25.
Radtke, Lorraine. Papers. UWM Mss 64. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries, Archives Department.
Papers of a former publicist and member of the Milwaukee Public School’s Board of Directors, including files on the Special Committee on Equality of Educational Opportunity and the Committee on Instruction.
Slesinger, Jonathan Avery. Study of community opinions concerning the summer of 1967 civil disturbances in Milwaukee. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Office of Applied Social Research, School of Social Welfare and Institute of Human Relations, 1968.
St. Boniface Church, Milwaukee. Records. Manuscript Collection 81. Archdiocese of Milwaukee Archives.
St. Boniface parish was founded in Milwaukee on the near north side of the city in 1888 by German immigrants. In the 1950's-70's the ethnic and racial makeup of St. Boniface's neighborhood changed and African-Americans came to predominate. In the 1960's, with the active involvement of Rev. Eugene Bleidorn and Rev. James Groppi, St. Boniface became a focal point of the civil rights movement in Milwaukee. Of note are church bulletins from 1966, a few photographs from the 1960s, and a folder of historical notes.
U.S. Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals Records. Record Group 276. National Archives and Records Administration—Great Lakes Region (Chicago).
Bell, et al v. City of Milwaukee, et al (1982). Case 82-2102, 2103 and 2138; Case Files. The Circuit Court of Appeals upheld most of the District Court’s 1979 findings. This case file includes a detailed history of the 1958 shooting, the cover up, and the testimony from the 1979 District case.
Zablocki, Clement. Papers. Marquette University, Raynor Memorial Libraries.
Zablocki was a U.S. Representative from the 4th Congressional District of Wisconsin during the 1960s. Papers include his constituent correspondence on civil rights issues, including the open housing marches.

Secondary Sources

Anderson, Margo and Victor Greene, eds. Perspectives on Milwaukee's Past. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2009.

Baruch, Steven A. "Factors Affecting the Process of Curriculum Formation in the Milwaukee Public Schools, July 1955 to June 1976." Ph.D. diss., University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 1982.

Black, Ivory Abena. Bronzeville: A Milwaukee Lifestyle. Milwaukee: Publisher's Group, 2006.

Bolz, Robert Arthur. "A Descriptive Analysis of a Class for Educationally Underprivileged Children at Lloyd Street School, Milwaukee, Wisconsin." Master's thesis, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 1958.

Boustan, Leah Platt. "Black Migration, White Flight: The Effect of Black Migration on Northern Cities and Labor Markets." Journal of Economic History 67, no. 2 (2007): 484-488.

Butler-Derge, Shirley R. Asante Sana, 'Thank You' Father James E. Groppi. Milwaukee: Nzingha Publishing Company, 2010.

Byers, Stephen R. "Diverse Community, Diverse Newspapers: How Milwaukee's Black Press Reflected Its Diversity, 1968-2002." Ph.D. diss., University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 2004.

Caspari, Genevieve G. "Media Performance at the Inflection Point: Coverage of Racial Conflict in Milwaukee in 1967." Master's thesis, Marquette University, 1982.

Coleman, Jonathan. Long Way to Go: Black and White in America. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1997.

Dahlk, William. Chipping Away at the Iceberg from Barbee to Fuller: Milwaukee Blacks and Educational Proprietorship, 1963-2000. Milwaukee: Marquette University Press, 2008.

_____. "The Black Educational Reform Movement in Milwaukee, 1963-1975." Master's thesis, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 1990.

DeParle, Jason. American Dream: Three Women, Ten Kids and a Nation's Drive to End Welfare. New York: Viking, 2004.

DiSalvo, Jackie. "Father James E. Groppi (1930-1985): The Militant Humility of a Civil Rights Activist." Chap. 10 in The Lost World of Italian American Radicalism: Politics, Labor and Culture, edited by Phillip Cannistraro and Gerald Meyer. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003.

Dougherty, Jack. "African-Americans, Civil Rights, and Race-Making in Milwaukee." Chap. 5 in Perspectives on Milwaukee's Past edited by Margo Anderson and Victor Greene. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2009.

_____. More Than One Struggle: The Evolution of Black School Reform in Milwaukee. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.

Fishel, Jr., Leslie H. "The Genesis of the First Wisconsin Civil Rights Act." Wisconsin Magazine of History 49, no. 4 (1966): 324-333.

Geib, Paul. "From Mississippi to Milwaukee: A Case Study of the Southern Black Migration to Milwaukee, 1940-1970." Journal of Negro History 83 (Autumn 1998): 229-248.

_____. "The Late Great Migration: A Case Study of Southern Black Migration to Milwaukee." Master's thesis, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 1993.

Geenen, Paul H. Milwaukee's Bronzeville: 1900-1950. Charleston: Arcadia Publishing, 2006.

Goddard, Caroline Katie. "Lloyd Barbee and the Fight for Desegregation in the Milwaukee Public School System." Master's thesis, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 1985.

Gulas, William E. "A Controversial Personality in the Press: A Descriptive Study of the Milwaukee Press' Treatment of Father James E. Groppi at the Height of the Open Housing Demonstrations, August 29-September 8, 1967." Master's thesis, Marquette University, 1972.

Gurda, John. The Making of Milwaukee. Milwaukee County Historical Society, 1999.

_____. Cream City Chronicles: Stories of Milwaukee's Past. Madison: Wisconsin Historical Society, 2006.

Harris, Ian M. "Criteria for Evaluating School Desegregation in Milwaukee." Journal of Negro Education 52 (1983): 423-435.

Intercollegiate Council on Intergroup Relations, and Irwin D. Rinder. "The Housing of Negroes in Milwaukee: 1955." Milwaukee, Wisconsin: 1955

Jones, Patrick D. The Selma of the North: Civil Rights Insurgency in Milwaukee. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 2009.

_____. "'Not a Color, but an Attitude': Father James Groppi and Black Power Politics in Milwaukee." Chap. 11 in Groundwork: Local Black Freedom Movements in America, edited by Jeanne F. Theoharis and Komozi Woodard. New York: New York University Press, 2005.

Kenny, Judith. "Making Milwaukee Famous: Cultural Capital, Urban Image and the Politics of Place." Urban Geography 16, no. 5 (1995): 440-458.

Kinlow, M. R. and R. L. McNeely. Milwaukee Today: A Racial Gap Study. Milwaukee Urban League, 1987.

Levine, Marc V. "Race and Male Joblessness in Milwaukee," University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Center for Economic Development Briefing Paper, September 2009. http://www4.uwm.edu/ced/publications/race_joblessness08.pdf

Little, Kenneth L., Stanley F. Battle, and Rick Hornung. The State of Black Milwaukee. Milwaukee: Milwaukee Urban League, 2000.

McBride, Genevieve. "The Progress of 'Race Men' and 'Colored Women' in the Black Press in Wisconsin, 1892-1985." In The Black Press in the Middle West, 1865-1985, edited by Henry Lewis Suggs. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996.

McCarthy, John M. Making Milwaukee Mightier: Planning and the Politics of Growth, 1910-1960. DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University Press, 2009.

McGreevy, John T. Parish Boundaries: The Catholic Boundaries with Race in the Twentieth-Century Urban North. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.

Meyer, Stephen Grant. As Long As They Don't Move Next Door: Segregation and Racial Conflict in American Neighborhoods. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2000.

Miner, Barbara. "Valiant Lady Vel." Milwaukee Magazine 30, no. 1 (2005): 54-60.

Modlinski, Jules. "Commandos: A Study of a Black Organization's Transformation from Militant Protest to Social Service." Ph.D. diss., University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1978.

The Negro in Milwaukee: A Historical Survey. Milwaukee: Milwaukee County Historical Society, 1968.

Nelson, James K. "Racial Integration in the Milwaukee Public Schools, 1963-2003." Master's thesis, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 2003.

Oliver, John. A Historical Account of Blacks in Milwaukee. Milwaukee: Milwaukee Urban Observatory, 1976.

Orum, Anthony M. City-Building in America. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1995.

Palay, Miriam G. Census Update: City of Milwaukee, 1975. Milwaukee: Milwaukee Urban Observatory, 1977.

Ratkowski, Myron. What Really Happened: A Police Report (A Law-Enforcement Perspective on the Riots of the 60's: Countering Lies and Legends on the Civil-Rights and Students Demonstrations). Milwaukee: Nine Mugwump Publishers, 2003.

Rozga, Margaret. "March on Milwaukee." Wisconsin Magazine of History 90, no. 4 (2007): 28-39.

_____. 200 Nights and One Day. Hopkins: Benu Press, 2009.

_____. "When Civil Rights Were on the Rise." The Humanist 66, no. 6 (2006): 18-21.

Rury, John L. and Frank A. Cassell, eds. Seeds of Crisis: Public Schooling in Milwaukee Since 1920. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1993.

Seligman, Amanda I. Block by Block: Neighborhoods and Public Policy on Chicago's West Side. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005.

Smuckler, Richard Charles. "Black Power and the NAACP: Milwaukee, 1969: A Case Study." Master's thesis, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1970.

Squires, Gregory D. Urban Sprawl: Causes, Consequences, and Policy Responses. Washington, D.C.: Urban Institute Press, 2002.

Squires, Gregory D. and Charis E. Kubrin. Privileged Places: Race, Residence, and the Structure of Opportunity. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2006.

Sugrue, Thomas J. Sweet Land of Liberty: The Forgotten Struggle for Civil Rights in the North. New York: Random House, 2008.

Theoharis, Jeanne and Komozi Woodard, eds. Freedom North: Black Freedom Struggles Outside the South, 1940-1980. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.

Thompson, William F. The History of Wisconsin. Vol. 6, Continuity and Change, 1940-1965. Madison, WI: State Historical Society, 1988.

Through One City's Eyes: Race Relations in America's Heartland. VHS. Milwaukee, WI: Duncan Group, 1999.

Trotter, Joe W. Black Milwaukee: The Making of an Industrial Proletariat, 1915-1945. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1985.

Vollmar, William J. "The Negro in a Midwest Frontier City, Milwaukee: 1835-1870." Master's thesis, Marquette University, 1968.

Wellauer-Lenius, Maralyn A. Milwaukee Police Department. Charleston: Arcadia Publishing, 2006.

Wendelberger, Jay. "The Open Housing Movement in Milwaukee: Hidden Transcripts of the Urban Poor." Master's thesis, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 1996.

Zubrensky, Ruth. A Report on Past Discrimination Against African-Americans in Milwaukee, 1835-1999. Milwaukee, 1999.

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