December 4, 1937. The Copeman farm, N. Rhodesia: The simple irrigation system used on this farm carries an interesting story. The manager, David Holder, has acquired an enviable local reputation for his ability to discover water in a country where the rainfall is seasonal and has unfortunate variability. The average is 33 inches, but it has rained from 18 to 45 inches in different years. Holder's canals are never completely dry and his best one, which yields 50,000 gallons an hour in the wet season, still gives 10,000 gallons in the driest period. The time of our visit was near the end of the worst droughts in history 16 months since a rain. There are 8 wells on the farm, which are simply open ditches dug into a likely looking hill or knoll. These are led by gravity trenches into 4 dams. One of the wells shows up in this picture as a side entrant to the main canal. The clearing of the land has been done by native squatters, of which there are at present about 200. These people pay 2s a month for the privilege of residing on uncleared Land. They build their own huts, cut down the trees (but the owners sells the wood), and plant sweet potatoes. During the second season the land is leveled further and mealies (corn) are planted. At the end of the year the potatoes and the corn have sweetened the land so that the owner may use it, providing he pulls the stumps, and he then requests his tenants to move elsewhere. It seems a hard existence for the natives, but they would rather do this than go onto one of the reservations. In the picture are a number of native huts and considerable areas of sweet potato planting (in small hummocks). A few rows of mealies are seen. Note the numerous anthills. 4600 feet. 06:21.